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Although there is no doctrine of precedent in the ICJ and International Tribunals, cognizance is taken of previous decisions of the Court. The writings and opinions of academics play some role in judicial decision making, but since this influence varies, even between states, its role tends to be restricted to particular points of law and/or reasoning in judgments of courts or tribunals.


  1. Courts
  2. Arbitration


European courts

International Criminal Court (ICC)

International Criminal Tribunals

International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

Project on International Courts and Tribunals (PICT)

Decisions of municipal courts

International Court of Justice


Reports of International Arbitral Awards - print publication, Squire classmark F.c.5.14

International Law Reports - print publication, Squire classmark F.c.5.6

World Trade Organization dispute settlement gateway

Investment arbitrations