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By Lesley Dingle and Daniel Bates

Sir Christopher Greenwood, GBE, CMG, QC

Biography

Born: 12 May 1955, Wellingborough, Northamptonshire

Nationality: United Kingdom

Educated

  • Raeburn Park School, Singapore
  • Wellingborough School, Northamptonshire;
  • Magdalene College, Cambridge (BA Law (First Class) 1976; LlB International Law (First Class) 1977; MA 1980.
    • College, Squire, McNair and Whewell Scholarships, Cambridge.
  • Middle Temple: joined 1974; Harmsworth Exhibition.

Professional Career

  • Fellow, Magdalene College, Cambridge, 1978-1996
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Law, Cambridge, 1981-1996
  • Professor of International Law, LSE, 1996-2009
  • Called to the Bar (Middle Temple), 1978
  • Queen's Counsel 1999
  • Judge, International Court of Justice, 2009-2018
  • Judge, Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, 2018 to present
  • Master, Magdalene College, Cambridge with effect from 1 October 2020.

Honours

  • Companion, Order of St Michael and St George (CMG), 2002
  • Knight Bachelor for services to public international law, 2009
  • Knight Grand Cross, Order of the British Empire (GBE), 2018, for services to international justice
  • Honorary Fellow, Magdalene College, Cambridge, 2009-2020.

Middle Temple

Bencher, 2003; Reader Lent Term 2020

Miscellaneous

  • Member, UK National Group, Permanent Court of Arbitration
  • Vice-President, British Institute of International and Comparative Law
  • Member, Institut de droit international

Publications

  • International Law Reports, vols 52-188, co-editor with the late Sir Elihu Lauterpacht, QC (vols 82-168)
  • Command and the Laws of Armed Conflict (1993)
  • Essays on War in International Law (2006)
  • Approximately 60 articles and 50 shorter notes and reviews in legal journals

Participation as a Judge at the International Court of Justice

  • Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Order of 26 May 2009 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2009, p. 139.
  • Dispute regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Judgment of 13 July 2009, I.C.J. Reports 2009, p. 213.
  • Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina v. Uruguay), Judgment of 20 April 2010, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 14 [Separate Opinion, p. 221]
  • Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy), Order of 6 July 2010 (Counter-claim), I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 310 [Joint Declaration with Judge Keith, p. 323].
  • Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 403.
  • Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Republic of Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo), Judgment of 30 November 2010, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 639 [Joint Declaration with Judge Keith, p. 712].
  • Certain Activities carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Order of 8 March 2011 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 6 [Declaration, p. 46].
  • Application of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation), Judgment of 1 April 2011 (Preliminary Objections), I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 70 [Separate Opinion, p. 323]
  • Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy, Greece Intervening), Order of 4 July 2011 (Application by Greece to Intervene), I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 494.
  • Request for the Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), Order of 18 July 2011 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2011, p. 537.
  • Application of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995 (The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia v. Greece), Judgment of 5 December 2011, I.C.J. Reports, p. 644.
  • Judgment No 2867 of the Administrative Tribunal of the International Labour Organization upon a Complaint filed against the International Fund for Agricultural Development, Advisory Opinion of 1 February 2012, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 10 [Declaration, p. 94].
  • Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy, Greece Intervening), Judgment of 3 February 2012, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 99.
  • Ahmadou Sadio Diallo (Republic of Guinea v. Democratic Republic of the Congo), Judgment of 19 June 2012 (Compensation), I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 324 [Declaration, p. 390].
  • Obligation to Prosecute or Extradite (Belgium v. Senegal), Judgment of 20 July 2012, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 422
  • Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia), Judgment of 19 November 2012, I.C.J. Reports 2012, p. 624.
  • Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v. Niger), Judgment of 16 April 2013, I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 44.
  • Certain Activities Carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Order of 18 April 2013 (Counter-claim), I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 200.
  • Certain Activities Carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Order of 16 July 2013 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 230.
  • Request for the Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), Judgment of 11 November 2013, I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 281.
  • Certain Activities Carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Order of 22 November 2013 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 354
  • Construction of a Road in Costa Rica along the San Juan River (Nicaragua v. Costa Rica), Order of 13 December 2013 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2013, p. 398.
  • Questions relating to the Seizure and Detention of Certain Documents (Timor Leste v. Australia), Order of 3 March 2014 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2014, p.147 [Dissenting Opinion, p. 194]
  • Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan, New Zealand intervening), Judgment of 31 March 2014, I.C.J. Reports 2014, p. 226 [Separate Opinion, p. 405]
  • Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v. Serbia), Judgment of 3 February 2015, I.C.J. Reports 2015, p. 3.
  • Obligation to Negotiate Access to the Pacific Ocean (Bolivia v. Chile) (Preliminary Objections), Judgment of 24 September 2015.
  • Certain Activities carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) and Construction of a Road in Costa Rica along the River San Juan (Nicaragua v. Costa Rica), Judgment of 16 December 2015 [Joint Declaration with Judges Tomka, Sebutinde and Dugard].
  • Question of the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between Nicaragua and Colombia beyond 200 nautical miles from the Nicaraguan Coast (Nicaragua v. Colombia) (Preliminary Objections), Judgment of 17 March 2016.
  • Alleged Violations of Sovereign Rights and Maritime Spaces in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Colombia) (Preliminary Objections), Judgment of 17 March 2016.
  • Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islandsv.India), Judgment of 5 October 2016
  • Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islandsv.Pakistan), Judgment of 5 October 2016
  • Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islandsv.United Kingdom) (Preliminary Objections), Judgment of 5 October 2016
  • Immunities and Criminal Proceedings (Equatorial Guinea v. France) Order of 7 December 2016 (Provisional Measures)
  •  Maritime Delimitation in the Indian Ocean (Somalia v. Kenya) (Preliminary Objections), Judgment of 2 February 2017
  • Application of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Ukrainev.Russian Federation), Request for Provisional MeasuresOrder of 19 April 2017
  • Alleged Violations of Sovereign Rights and Maritime Spaces in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Colombia), Order of 15 November 2017 on Counterclaims
  • Certain Activities carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Judgment of 2 February 2018 on Compensation
  • Maritime Delimitation in the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean and Land Boundary in the Northern Part of the Isla Portillos (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Judgment of 2 February 2018
  • Budgetary and Administrative Committee, 2009 to 2018
  • Rules Committee, 2009-2012
  • Chair, Information Technology Committee, 2015 to 2018

Arbitrations

Extensive experience as an arbitrator in cases on public international law, including:

  • Corn Products Inc. v. United Mexican States, 146 ILR 581 (2008) [President]
  • Newmont Ltd v. Uzbekistan ICSID ARB (discontinued 2007)
  • European Media Ventures SA v. Czech Republic (2009) award of 8 July 2009 available on www.italaw.com
  • Azpetrol v. Azerbaijan (2009) ICSID ARB 06/15 award of 8 September 2009 available on www.italaw.com
  • European American Investment Bank v. Slovak Republic (2012-14) awards of 22 October 2012 and 7 June 2014 on jurisdiction and 20 August 2014 on costs available on www.italaw.com [President]
  • Chagos Marine Protected Area (Mauritius v. United Kingdom), Award of 18 March 2015, 162 International Law Reports 1 and 59
  • EDF v. Argentina (ICSID ARB/03/23; annulment) [President]
  • CEAC v. Montenegro (ICSID ARB 14/8; annulment) [President]
  • Alghanim v. Jordan (ICSID ARB/13/38; annulment) [President]
  • Eurogas/Belmont v. Slovakia (ICSID Case No. ARB/14/4) [President] (discontinued 2020)
  • Vardan v. Libya (ICC) (discontinued 2019) [President]
  • Mobil Investments v. Canada (No. 2) (ICSID ARB 15/6) [President]
  • Metrojet (Kogalymavia) v. Arab Republic of Egypt (PCA Case No. 2018-43) [President]
  • Princegroup Prens Turizm v. Arab Republic of Egypt (PCA Case No. 2018-44) [President]

Pending cases: SunFlower Olmeda v. Spain (ICSID ARB 16/17) [President]; Landesbank Baden-Wurttemberg v. Spain (ICSID ARB 15/45) [President]; EGS v. Bosnia and Herzegovina (ICSID ARB 14/13) [President]; Agro EcoDevelopment Tanzania Ltd. et al. v. Tanzania (ICSID ARB 17/33) [President]; Alverley v. Romania (ICSID ARB 18/30) [President]; Glencore v.Colombia (ICSID Case No. ARB 16/6) [President]; Pildegovics v. Kingdom of Norway (ICSID Case No. ARB/20/11) [President]; Odebrecht Latinvest Sarl v. Republic of Peru (ICSID Case No. ARB/20/04) [President]; Alcor Holdings v. Czech Republic (PCA Case No. 2018-45) [President]; Raiffeisenbank International AG and Raiffeisenbank Austria DD v. Republic of Croatia (PCA Case No. 202-15) [President]; one other UNCITRAL case as President. Republic of Iraq v. Republic of Turkey (ICC) [Member]; Dispute concerning the Detention of Ukrainian Naval Vessels and Servicemen (Ukraine v. Russian Federation) (PCA Case No. 2019-28) [Member].

Principal Appearances as Counsel (1992-2009)

Before the International Court of Justice

  • Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention Arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libya v. United Kingdom) Order of 14 April 1992 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 1992, p. 3; Judgment of 27 February 1998, p. 9 (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict (Request by the World Health Organization), Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 66 (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (Request by the United Nations General Assembly), Advisory Opinion of 8 July 1996, I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226 (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. United Kingdom), Order of 2 June 1999 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 1999, p. 826; Judgment of 15 December 2004 I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 1307 (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo v. Rwanda) Order of 10 July 2002 (Provisional Measures), I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 219 and Judgment of 3 February 2006, I.C.J. Reports 2006, p. 6 (Counsel for Rwanda).
  • Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea, (Nicaragua v. Honduras), Judgment 8 October 2007, I.C.J. Reports 2007, p. 659 (Counsel for Honduras).

Before other International Courts and Tribunals

  • Banković v. Belgium and Others (European Court of Human Rights, Grand Chamber), 123 ILR 94 (2001) (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Kingsley v. United Kingdom (European Court of Human Rights, Grand Chamber) 35605/97 (2002) (Counsel for Mr Kingsley).
  • Azinas v. Cyprus (European Court of Human Rights, Grand Chamber) 56679/00 (2004) (Counsel for Mr Azinas).
  • The Queen (on the Application of the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners) v. Secretary of State for Transport (Court of Justice of the European Communities, Grand Chamber) 142 ILR 89 (2008) (Counsel for Intertanko).
  • Kadi v. Council of the European Union (Court of Justice of the European Communities, Grand Chamber) 149 ILR 341 (2008) (Counsel for the United Kingdom).
  • Barbados v. Trinidad and Tobago (UNCLOS Annex VII), 139 ILR 449 (2006) (Counsel for Trinidad and Tobago).
  • Guyana v. Suriname (UNCLOS Annex VII) 139 ILR 566 (2007) (Counsel for Suriname).
  • SGS v. Republic of the Philippines (ICSID) 129 ILR 444 (2004) (Counsel for the Philippines).
  • Impregilo SpA v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan (ICSID) ARB/03/3; Decision of 22 April 2005 (Counsel for Pakistan)
  • Bayindir Insaat Turizm Ticaret Ve Sanayi AS v. Islamic Republic of Pakistan (ICSID) ARB/03/29; Decision of 14 November 2005 and Award of 27 August 2009 (hearings concluded in 2008) (Counsel for Pakistan)
  • Loewen Group v. United States of America (NAFTA Chapter 11) 128 ILR 334 (2001) (Expert witness)

Other arbitrations and appearances before the United Nations Compensation Commission and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia

Before National Courts

  • R. v. Bow Street Magistrate, ex parte Pinochet (No. 1) [2000] 1 AC 147; 119 ILR 50 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for Spain).
  • R. v. Bow Street Magistrate, ex parte Pinochet (No. 3) [2000] 1 AC 147; 119 ILR 135 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for Spain).
  • Holland v. Lampen-Wolfe [2000] 1 WLR 1573; 119 ILR 367 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for Mr Lampen-Wolfe).
  • Kuwait Airways Corporation v. Iraqi Airways Co. [2002] 2 AC 883; 125 ILR 602 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for Kuwait Airways).
  • R (European Roma Rights Centre) v. Immigration Officer [2005] 2 AC 1; 131 ILR 652 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for the Secretary of State).
  • Jones v. Saudi Arabia [2007] 1 AC 270; 129 ILR 713 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for the Secretary of State as intervener).
  • R (Al-Skeini) v. Secretary of State [2008] 1 AC 153; 133 ILR 693 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for the Secretary of State).
  • R (Al-Jedda) v. Secretary of State [2008] 1 AC 332; 137 ILR 287 (England, House of Lords) (Counsel for the Secretary of State).
  • Republic of Ecuador v. Occidental Exploration and Production Co. 138 ILR 92 (England, Court of Appeal) (Counsel for Occidental).

Other cases in English courts. Also appeared as counsel in Bermuda and Gibraltar and as expert witness in Canada and the United States of America.

Publications

  • International Law Reports vols 51-192 (Joint editor vols 82-168 with the late Sir Elihu Lauterpacht and with Ms Karen Lee); vols 193-197 in press
  • Essays on War in International Law (2006)
  • Command and the Laws of Armed Conflict (1993)
  • The Kuwait Conflict (co-editor, 1991)
  • 'State Contracts in International Law' 58 British Year Book of International Law (1982) 27-81
  • 'The Relationship of Ius ad Bellum and Ius in Bello' 9 Review of International Studies (1983) 221-234
  • 'The Concept of War in Modern International Law' 36 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (1987) 283-306
  • 'Self-Defence and the Conduct of International Armed Conflict' in Y. Dinstein (ed) International Law at a Time of Perplexity (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989) 273-288
  • 'Twilight of the Law of Belligerent Reprisals' 20 Netherlands Year Book of International Law (1989) 35-69
  • 'Terrorism and Protocol I' 19 Israel Year Book of Human Rights (1989) 187-208;
  • 'The Administration of Occupied Territory in International Law' in E. Playfair (ed) International Law and the Administration of Occupied Territories (Oxford University Press, 1992) 241-266
  • The Customary Law Status of the 1977 Additional Protocols' in A. Delissen and G. Tanja (eds) Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicts (Martinus Nihjoff, Dordrecht, 1991), 93-114
  • 'New World Order or Old? The Invasion of Kuwait and the Rule of Law' 55 Modern Law Review (1992) 153-178;
  • Chapters 1 and 2 in D. Fleck (ed) Handbuck des Humanitaren Volkerrechts in bewaffneten Konflikten (1994) 1-55; published in English as D. Fleck (ed) The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts (Oxford 1995; 2nd edition, 2008)
  • 'Considerations of International Law' (with Hugh Mercer) in B. Eichengreen and R. Portes (eds), Crisis? What Crisis? Orderly Workouts for Sovereign Debtors (1995), 103-117
  • 'The United Nations as Guarantor of International Pace and Security 1945-95: A United Kingdom View' in C. Tomuschat (ed) The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective (1996) 59-76
  • 'The International Court and the Use of Force' in A.V. Lowe and M. Fitzmaurice (eds.), Fifty Years of he International Court of Justice (1996) 373-388
  • 'International Humanitarian Law and the Tadic Case' 7 European Journal of International Law (1996) 265-283
  • 'Protection of Peacekeepers: The Legal Regime' 7 Duke Journal of International Law (1996) 185-207
  • 'The Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons and the Contribution of the International Court to International Humanitarian Law' 37 Int.Rev. of the Red Cross (1997) 65-75
  • 'A Critique of the Protocols' (on the 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions) in Durham and McCormack (ed), The Changing Face of Conflict and the Efficacy of International Law (Kluwer, 1999), pp. 3-22
  • 'The Development of International Humanitarian Law by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia' 2 Year Book of United Nations Law (1998) 97-140
  • 'International Humanitarian Law and United Nations Military Operations' 1, Year Book of International Humanitarian Law (1998) 3-34
  • 'The Law of Weaponry at the Start of the New Millenium', in L.C. Green and M. Schmitt (eds), Into the Millenium: The Law of Armed Conflict (1999), pp. 185-232
  • 'Rights at the Frontier: Protecting the Individual in Time of War', in Rider (ed) Law at the Centre (1999); the 50th Anniversary Lectures of the Institute for Advanced Legal Studies (Kluwer Law International), pp. 277-293
  • Report on International Humanitarian Law published under commission from the Netherlands Government as part of the Centenary of the First Hague Peace Conference, published in F Kalshoven (ed) The Centennial of the First International peace Conference (Kluwer, 2000), pp. 161-259
  • 'War, Terrorism and International Law' Current Legal Problems, 2003 (Oxford), pp. 505-530
  • 'Jurisdiction, NATO and the Kosovo Conflict', in Capps, Evans and Konstadinidis, Asserting Jurisdiction (2003), pp. 149-171
  • 'The Law of Armed Conflict' (chapter in M. Evans (ed), International Law (Oxford 2003 and 2007))
  • 'Command Responsibility and the Hadzihasanovic decision' 2 Journal of International Criminal Justice (2004) 598-605
  • 'State Responsibility for the Decisions of National Courts' in Fitzmaurice and Sarooshi (eds) Issues of State Responsibility before International Judicial Institutions (2004) 55-74
  • Chapter on the United Kingdom in Gowland-Debbas (ed) National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions (2004) 581-604
  • 'The Legality of the Use of Force' in Bothe, O'Connell and Ronzitti (eds) Redefining Sovereignty (2005) pp 387-416
  • 'The Caroline', in Wolfrum (ed), Max Planck Encyclopaedia of International Law (2012), vol. I, pp. 1141-1143
  • 'Self-Defence', in Wolfrum (ed), Max Planck Encyclopaedia of International Law (2012), vol. IX, pp. 103-112
  • 'Human Rights and Humanitarian Law – Conflict or Convergence' 43 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law (2010), pp. 491-512
  • 'Rethinking the Substantive Standards of Protection under Investment Treaties, Response to the Report' in Flaws and Presumptions: Rethinking Arbitration Law and Practice, Papers of the Mauritius International Arbitration Conference 2010, pp. 373-379
  • 'The Role of the International Court of Justice in the Global Community' 17 UC Davis Journal of International Law (2011), pp. 233-252
  • 'Some Challenges of International Litigation' 1 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law (2012) pp. 7-22
  • 'Judicial Integrity and the Advisory Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice' in G. Gaja and J. Grote Stoutenberg (eds) Enhancing the Rule of Law through the International Court of Justice (2014), pp. 63-74
  • 'Unity and Diversity in International Law' in Andenas and Bjorge (eds) Farewell to Fragmentation (Cambridge University Press, 2015), pp. 37-55
  • 'The International Court of Justice and International Humanitarian Law' in O. Elias and C. Jalloh (eds), Essays in Honour of Abdul Koroma (Brill, 2015), pp. 263-288
  • 'Reflections on “Most Favoured Nation Clauses” in Bilateral Investment Treaties', in D. Caron (ed) Practising Virtue (2015), essays in honour of Charles Brower (Oxford University Press, 2015)
  • 'International Humanitarian Law in Context', in Cheng Chia-Jui (ed), A New International Legal Order, pp. 312-329.
  • 'The Development of International Law by National Courts' in Maluwa, Tladi and du Plessis (eds), The Pursuit of a Brave New World in International Law (2017), essays in honour of John Dugard, pp. 193-211., pp. 556-564.
  • 'Applying International Law: Norms, Equity, Proportionality and Reasonableness' to be published in Receuil de cours, Hague Academy of International Law
  • Lauterpacht Lectures: 'Aspects of State Immunity' January 2015, to be published by Cambridge University PressContributed to the San Remo Manual on International Law Applicable to Armed Conflicts at Sea (1995)
  • Consultant, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (United Kingdom, 2004)
  • Some fifty shorter articles and book reviews.

Membership of Learned Societies and Boards of Editors

  • British Institute of International and Comparative Law, Vice-President
  • Institut de droit international, Member
  • American Society of International Law
  • Asian Society of International Law
  • European Society of International Law
  • International Law Association
  • Joint Editor, International Humanitarian Law Series (Martinus Nijhoff)
  • Editorial Board British Year Book of International Law
  • Editorial Board Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law